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ITU J Faculty Arch: 11 (2)
Volume: 11  Issue: 2 - December 2014
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1.Cover

Page I

EDITORIAL
2.Editorial
Gül Koçlar Oral
Pages I - II

DOSSIER EDITORIAL
3.Space syntax
Ayşe Sema Kubat
Pages 1 - 7
Abstract | Full Text PDF

DOSSIER ARTICLES
4.Space and planned informality: Strong and weak programme categorisation in public learning environments
Cauê Capillé, Sophia Psarra
Pages 9 - 29
Public educational buildings – such as schools, libraries, research centres and museum galleries – have complex and often conflicting requirements in terms of their programming and functioning. On the one hand, they need to provide open and equal access to knowledge to various categories of users. On the other, they have needs that might restrict or condition the arrangement of space, movement and various activities. At the same time, social and technological changes cause these typologies to change from within so as to include the idea of learning as a form of socialisation. These shifts imply complex or conflicting spatial, programmatic and organisational needs and point towards a hybridisation of strong and weak programme organisation (Hillier, Hanson, Peponis 1984; Hillier 1996).

This paper looks at two public libraries in London: Kensington Central Library and Swiss Cottage Library. The questions studied through these libraries are: firstly, how these conflicting requirements of space, programme and use are manifested through their spatial structuring and social performance? Secondly, how do weak and strong programme aspects of these buildings influence their day-to-day functioning? Finally: what is the role of the space of these libraries in influencing the strengthening or weakening of the boundaries between these programmatic categories of activities?

It is argued that although both libraries are similar in scale and programmatic description, they have a crucial difference: their spatial structure. This difference exposed the influence of the spatial manifestation of programme on the transpatial definition of programme. The combination of the position of activities in the spatial layout and the length of the description of such activities are pointed as fundamental aspects to be observed regarding the influence of programme in the actual use of space – especially the potential in generating unprogrammed social encounters. It is found that the KCL leans towards the strong and formal end of this programmatic typology, being a library of an academic character. The SCL on the other hand, intensifies the informal and weakly structured aspects of this typology, functioning as a library-community centre.

5.The influence of spatial organization of the home on inhabitant activity
Sonit Bafna, Earle Chambers
Pages 31 - 46
We describe a study to test whether the arrangement of rooms in an apartment has any systematic association with the levels of activity of its inhabitants. This study was conducted in a sample of Latino adults living in the Bronx, New York. A convenience sample of 19 apartments was selected within the Bronx, NY and one adult volunteer was selected from each household based on who was present at the time of a home visit conducted to collect information on extent of activities. Floor plans for the apartments were obtained from the city authorities.

The paper begins by reasoning about the mechanism by which the organization of space can influence levels of activity in the house, and goes on distinguish, first, habitual from deliberate and planned activity, and second, sedentary from more vigorous activity. It is argued that habitual activity would be more susceptible to the influence of spatial organization, and that such habitual activity is likely to be sedentary activity around the house rather than moderate or intense activity. Furthermore, different types of sedentary activity should respond differentially to spatial organization. Specifically, sedentary activities that are susceptible to social life in the house, or require social participation like watching TV or playing cards, should show a positive association with how closely the rooms are knit together, while sedentary activities such as reading, working on computers, and playing video games, that are better conducted in solitary situations, should not.

Bivariate analyses showed that interconnectedness (a modified version of integration) was significantly associated with hours spent in socially susceptible sedentary activities but not with hours spent in sedentary activities that occur in solitary conditions, like using the computer or reading. In multivariate analyses, conducted to control for the effects of age and educational level, interconnectedness was still significantly associated with sedentary activity hours. A separate test showed that the positive association with interconnectedness also held for sitting/reclining Hours reported over the day; unlike sedentary activity hours, sitting/reclining hours included activity outside the home as well, so the result raises issues of additional interest.

The paper concludes by presenting methodological implications, focusing particularly on how the study could be further developed to model the specific mechanisms by which spatial organization exerts its influence on behavior.

6.Beyond analytical knowledge: The need for a combined theory of generation and explanation
Sophia Psarra
Pages 47 - 68
Analytic approaches to design develop theories from real-world phenomena, and as such are predominantly focused on the ‘laws that restrict and structure the field of possibility’ (Hillier 1996: 221). However, in the domain of design we need theories of design possibility and actuality, or a combined theory of generation and explanation. Starting from the assertion that there are multiple branches of architectural knowledge, this paper discusses three artefacts (Venice, Le Corbusier’s Venice Hospital and Calvino’s Invisible Cities) suggesting that in these artefacts we recognise common morphogenetic characteristics, and the intersection of analytic thought with generative design. The aim is threefold: firstly, to explore the ways in which the common characteristics in the three works create syntaxes of combinations capable of describing the generative imagination as the outcome of definable processes and relations; secondly, to explain the importance of a theory in dynamic processes of interaction and association aside to static spatial structures. Thirdly, to show where we can situate these ideas in relation to intellectual and design practices, and how to project them in the future.

It is proposed that the diversification of knowledge is the basic condition for the intersection of generative with analytical thought and the dynamic generation of meaning. The paper borrows from aesthetic and literary theory the notion of ‘possible worlds’ to take into account design as ‘worldmaking’ (Goodman 1978). It argues that analytic and generative knowledge are central in design, as each allows access to worlds whose centres of reality are not separate or fixed but interact and shift dynamically with creative activity and time. Aside to theories of explanation we need theories of generation or a combined theory of freedom and necessity in architecture and design.

7.Towards a psychology of syntactical readings: The case of applying a Cognitive Task Analysis method in acquiring and utilizing configuration-related knowledge
Konstantinos Ioannidis
Pages 69 - 85
This paper explores architecture and urban design process and thinking through a Cognitive Task Analysis method employing a procedural pedagogical strategy. The aim is to capture a description of the knowledge patterns that students tend to develop at the stage of the coding process and reflect their own understanding of the systematic relations among different space syntax categories and concepts. During a semester course, the effort to establish an analysis of the cognitive inferences in the decision-making processes that emerge during a syntactical inquiry of the spatial properties reveal the initiatory knowledge used by the students as they develop compositional strategies for their proposals related to the restoration of an open public space in historic context. At the beginning, the research discusses the significance of interrogating narrative statements and reflections in order to frame the cognitive task analysis project. Later, it attempts to generate detailed information on the nature of those schematizing and non-representational processes that mark the shifting between the codification and the understanding of site-related knowledge. It is proposed that the integration of the method with the issue of underlying knowledge elicitation during a design studio course can be described as the extension of traditional teaching strategies to yield information about the representations of situated positions and the cognitive functions behind the understanding and production of shapes, forms and spatial arrangements.

8.Walkability and the complexity of walking behavior
Eunyoung Choi
Pages 87 - 99
The issue of pedestrian-friendly urban environments has been of increasing importance lately in urban planning and design. In order to develop a better knowledge about the walkability of the built environment, it is important to understand the complexity behind walking behavior. Since different kinds of walking activities vary in their goal, effort, frequency, duration, etc., they also vary in how strongly and in what aspect they are influenced by the condition of urban form. With an empirical study in three residential areas in Stockholm, Sweden, this study investigated the different types of walking activities in how they interact with the built environment. The results showed that the condition of the built environment related to the density, connectivity, and land-use diversity seems to influence the amount and diversity of walking activities and also affect how the walking activities are conducted. This is related to the degree of the potential urban form has in providing the different qualities that the pedestrians desire from the environment, which is not only related to providing walking destinations and possible routes, but also qualities that enhance the experiential quality of walking. Investigating the different aspects of walking in how they occur and are conducted in the urban environment is important in understanding why and how different conditions of the urban form discourage or encourage walking. This is not only useful in providing insights for more accurate knowledge on walkability, but also assists a better understanding and application of other urban design theories on pedestrian movement as well.

9.Walkability: Perceived and measured qualities in action
Özlem Özer, Ayşe Sema Kubat
Pages 101 - 117
The research into walkability has two common approaches to the variables: one depends on measuring the spatial configuration of street networks and the other depends on operationalizing urban design qualities such as imageability, enclosure, transparency and complexity by measuring the actual physical environment. Environmental perception has often been a subject in research into wayfinding behaviour, but not so much in research into walkability.

In this paper, we argue that it is possible to obtain a more accurate walkability forecast by comparing spatial configuration measures with the environmental perceptions of pedestrians to evaluate their effects on pedestrian movement levels.

In order to do this comparison, three case areas were selected, all of which are central retail districts in İstanbul, and which have a similar socio-economic user profile, similar public and private transportation links with the city and a similar relationship with the waterfront. All the three case areas were limited to cover a 1km x 0.5km area. The similar qualities of the three case areas are expected to offset the effects of land use, user profile, transportation links and recreational qualities.

The research was conducted in three basic steps. The first step was to record pedestrian movement levels in approximately 20 locations in each case area. The second step was to apply space syntax methodology to measure spatial configuration. The third step was to conduct a questionnaire to understand how users perceive those exact observation locations. The questionnaire made use of a semantic differential technique where participants are given pairs of oppositional adjectives with a rating scale.

The data recorded in this study was analysed statistically to define the correlational relationships among the three variables, which are pedestrian movement levels, spatial configuration and user perception. It is believed that the results of this study will contribute to a better understanding not only of the walkability measures, but also of the level of relation between the space syntax methodology and pedestrian perception. The method and the findings of this study constitute an analytical model that could shed fresh light on future research on walkability as well as on controlling levels of use within urban design proposals.

10.Configurational exploration of pedestrian and cyclist movements: A case study of Hangzhou, China
Xiaoling Dai, Wenbo Yu
Pages 119 - 130
This research organized a systematic survey on both pedestrian and cyclist movements in Hangzhou, to test whether the strong correlation between spatial configuration and movement discovered in western countries is also valid in a Chinese city with different urban morphology and social/culture conditions. Both axial model and angular segment model are adopted. A statistical analysis then shows that angular segment model provides stronger explanation for the movements than axial model. Configurational variables are well correlated with cyclist movement, while R2 value drops significantly with pedestrian volumes. To understand the movement flow which cannot be interpreted by spatial model, three reasons are deduced. First, the gated community management culture in China brings difficulty in constructing an accurate axial map. Second, due to the water channels across the site and abundant crossing points with level changes, there is a significant difference between accessibility graph and visibility graph. Finally, the hierarchy street system made the wide road not only a spatial connector but also a line with severance effect. Standard axial map cannot represent this feature and on the other hand how to deal with different resolutions of axial lines in one model has not been properly discussed. It is believed that these problems are common issues need further discussion.

11.Historic city centers under threat: The case of Sharjah, UAE
Ayşe Sema Kubat, Yasemin İnce Güney, Özlem Özer
Pages 131 - 151
In 1998, UNESCO selected the Emirate of Sharjah as the cultural capital of the Arab World. At present though, Sharjah’s historic center (Al Mureijah and Al Shueiyheen) is suffering from traffic congestion and environmental degradation that make it unattractive for visitors and inhabitants. These issues need urgent attention in order to reverse any further degradation of the historic city center, achieve economic and social gains, conserve the environment, and preserve the cultural heritage.

This research addresses the challenge of revitalizing historic Sharjah by identifying, understanding and providing solutions to problems that have emerged through its recent rapid growth. The main goal is to develop an analytical framework that will be utilized for future development strategy and urban design guidelines for revitalizing the historic core of Sharjah.

The proposed research will use Space Syntax as a diagnostic tool to understand how the history and evolution of the city’s structure had led to patterns of density, land use and socio-economic settlement. We hope to identify spatial causes of what are seen as barriers to social cohesion and develop a priority list of objectives for future development in Sharjah’s heritage area. We aim to scientifically evaluate the current problems, determine which land uses are appropriate for the continuance of economic and social gains, and develop priorities for: safeguarding cultural heritage; protecting the environment; increasing livability for visitors and inhabitants.

The fundamental achievement of this research will be an analytical framework that will serve as a guideline for future urban regeneration of Sharjah’s historic area. The findings of this study will shed fresh light on future research in the field or urban design and conservation and can be used to evaluate proposals to regenerate historical city centers that are under threat or have lost their economic, social, environmental and cultural vitality.

12.Gender and urban space: An examination of a small Anatolian city
Yasemin İnce Güney
Pages 153 - 172
Public spaces can be defined as places of interaction, social encounter and exchange where groups with different interests converge. Accessible and open to everyone, they are designed for a variety of uses where people can participate in public life. They also contribute to the collective identity of the community as they represent the culture and values of its users. In recent decades, the different ways in which public spaces are used have been the subject of studies from different disciplines including but not limited to anthropology, geography, sociology, architecture, and urban planning. It has been argued that the way in which urban life is lived and experienced changes according to demographics of its users such as age, sex, and social class.

In this study, the use of public spaces based on gender differences is analyzed using space syntax methodology. The context of the study is the city center of a small Anatolian town, Balıkesir, which is located in western Turkey. The methodology of the study includes a visibility analysis of the historic city center and pedestrian movement observations on the selected locations within this center. The results indicate that male users dominate the city center at all times while the density of women users is much lower, and is even lower than that of teenagers. A major contribution of this study is the finding that there is a discrepancy between the most integrated streets in terms of visibility and the most densely used ones. Given that the users of this small Anatolian town are mostly its residents, this finding suggests that for route-choice decisions,pedestrians utilize prior knowledge and experience of the city center more than the visual information provided to them via the geometry of the space.

13.A comparative study of the morphological characteristics of residential areas in San Francisco
Mehmet Topcu, Michael Southworth
Pages 173 - 189
This study compares residential neighborhoods with different gridiron patterns in terms of some morphological properties. Nine different gridiron street patterns of San Francisco neighborhoods were chosen to assess the livability of residential areas in terms of several morphological evaluation criteria including accessibility (local and global spatial integration), intelligibility, density, livability index and time period. When measuring these criteria, the focus was on the street-block and building-lot relationships using several different methods. Accessibility and intelligibility values were measured by the ‘space syntax’ method which evaluates the street system of urban form. Density measures were calculated by the ratio of total built area within sample areas to the total sample area and by the ratio of private open spaces of sample areas to the total built area. In addition, a livability index was calculated by the ratio of pedestrian area to total built area. The contribution of time in the process of city building is also an important part of the morphology of cities. Therefore, in this study time period was used to analyze the historical background of the city. All the findings were evaluated according to these criteria by using GIS. In conclusion, based on the findings, this study stresses that the criteria of accessibility, intelligibility levels and density are inversely proportional with the degree of livability in the study areas. Therefore, we hypothesize that accessibility, density and livability index are the important inputs for making better designs for urban residential space and city design as a whole.

14.The spatial flaws of new towns: Morphological comparison between a Chinese new and old town through the application of space syntax, spacematrix and mixed use index
Yu Ye, Akkelies Van Nes
Pages 191 - 208
Man new towns are established in China with the intention of providing desirable places to live. Nevertheless, these new towns often lack the flourishing street life, small businesses, and variety of social activities that old towns have to offer. This paper explores the spatial reasons why old towns tend to perform socio-economically better than new towns by adopting Space Syntax, Spacematrix, and Mixed Use Index (MXI) through geographical information system (GIS). These three analytical tools are first applied separately and then combined within the GIS matrix to compare Chinese new and old towns in terms of degree of spatial network configuration, building density, and degree of land use mix. The included case study will utilize the example of Songjiang, Shanghai, which features both a distinctive old town and new town section.

Songjiang Old Town features more urban areas with a high-level of spatial values from the perspective of street network configuration, building density, and land use mix as compared to its new town. These high spatial value urban areas promote a vital city centre, the type of which is absent from the new town. Meanwhile, Songjiang New Town’s problems are caused by a lack of well-integrated main roads and local streets, a low degree of interaction between buildings and streets, and low degree of land use mix as well. Certain spatial principles explaining how the neighbourhood unit is poorly designed in accordance with current planning and urban design practice are identified in this article. Alternative spatial indicators for aggregating areas with a high degree of urbanity are proposed for avoiding these flaws in future practice.

15.The spatial dimensions of trade: From the geography of uses to the architecture of local economies
Laura Narvaez, Alan Penn, Sam Griffiths
Pages 209 - 230
This paper investigates the relationship between urban space and urban economy focusing on the way centralities emerge across scales. A method is presented that combines space syntax theories and an economic model of trade-off that refers to the relation between rent and access. With the argument that economies take place in differences of space, accessibility, therefore, becomes an important matter of scale in order to understand how economic actions are materialised in urban space and how space affects socio-economic interactions at the local design scale of the city. Properties of this relationship are investigated through rent values of different real estate property markets in the city of Cardiff, UK. The method identifies the spatial distribution of activities across scales. Firstly, it is shown that trade-off modelling in the street configuration can be devised as a pattern of use mix profiles in the city. Secondly, that trading between cost and access is a local process that can take place in different locations in the city that potentially function as sub-centres. Thirdly, rent and access also encourages people to re-adapt urban spaces for economic benefits, generating the reconversion of uses contained in the same real estate, the commercial-residential building. Finally, the implications of combining space syntax techniques with urban economic models are discussed. It is concluded that while spatial configurations create possibilities for economic activity, this should also be viewed as the reverse approach of how urban economics requires proximity in distance to be produced –a relationship that has not yet been approached in space syntax research.

16.Patterns of sustainable mobility and the structure of modality in the Randstad city-region
Jorge Gil, Stephen Read
Pages 231 - 254
The sustainable mobility vision for city-regions proposes a more integrated and ‘seamless’ multi-modal public transport system around quality neighborhoods, shifting mobility to soft transportation modes and to public transport at various scales. Existing models of sustainable urban form address this challenge focusing on the location, density and diversity of activities, on the composition of the street layout, and on the presence of transport nodes and the quality of the public transport service. In order to better understand the relation between urban form and sustainable mobility patterns we propose to additionally measure the structure of mobility networks, including network proximity, density and accessibility, for different transport modes. The analysis of a multi-modal network model of the Randstad region in the Netherlands, integrating private and public transport infrastructure networks and land use information, reveals the structures of modality in the city-region. These structures are used to identify a typology of ‘modality environments’ that tested against travel survey data demonstrate support for specific patterns of mobility, i.e. walking, cycling, car use, local and regional transit.

This classification can contribute to a new urban form based method for evaluating the potential of neighborhoods for sustainable mobility.

17.Can spatial form support urban ecosystem services: Developing descriptions and measures to capture the spatial demands for pollination using the framework of space syntax
Lars Marcus, Meta Berghauser Pont, Åsa Gren
Pages 255 - 270
For sustainable urban development the idea of ecosystem services (ESS) is crucial, since it pinpoints how cities are dependent on local ecosystems and the wide range of services they provide for their welfare and survival. Pollination is an essential ESS for the majority of food production in the world and therefore also represents a tremendous monetary value that is provided by ecosystems for free. That wild pollinators are facing increasing threats due to urbanization and habitat fragmentation is therefore a distressing development. At the same time, it is also pointed out how cities have a great potential to sustain pollinator populations if properly designed and managed. However, the role of spatial form in supporting ecosystems services has so far not been studied. This is unfortunate, since it is at this scale that urban designers need knowledge if they are to support ESS. This paper presents, firstly, a conceptual discussion on the topic of spatial form of ESS and, secondly, a principal description of a methodological approach in which we propose to capture the spatial demands for pollination by developing descriptions and measures used in the framework of Space syntax. Thirdly, some preliminary results from a study in Stockholm will be presented as the ground for a discussion about the principal potentials of a spatial morphology of urban ecosystems.

THEORY ARTICLES
18.Access to healthcare: A field survey in Istanbul
Muhammed Ziya Paköz, Mehmet Ali Yüzer
Pages 271 - 290
Access to healthcare is a multi-dimensional concept that depends on the characteristics of supply (healthcare system) and demand (population). When healthcare facilities are located, the spatial and non-spatial dimensions of access to healthcare should be evaluated in conjunction. Spatial dimension emphasizes the importance of distance, while non-spatial dimension addresses factors such as level of income, educational attainment level, culture, ethnicity, age and sex.

In this study, various aspects of access to healthcare in Istanbul, which is the most populated, complex, multi-centered and multi-cultural city in Turkey, were examined by a field survey conducted with the participation of 756 households. The results of the survey reveal that hospital choices differ based on level of income. For the middle and low income groups, ‘accessibility’ and ‘affordability’ have higher importance, while the upper and upper-middle income groups prioritize ‘acceptability’.

The article also elaborates on the acceptable and realized travel time and travel distances to the hospitals in Istanbul. According to international standards and the literature on the topic, the maximum travel time to the nearest hospital is generally accepted as ‘30 minutes’, which proves to be parallel to the findings of the survey. However, the realized travel distance varies based on the type of the hospital in terms of ownership (public, private) and level of services (regional, local).

Along with addressing the spatial and non-spatial dimensions of access to healthcare, the article contributes to the available literature by discussing the supply of health services from various aspects and by revealing the relation between user (patient) behavior -which changes in relation to the type and nature of the health supply and the characteristics of the city- and the related distance thresholds and border-crossings.

19.Integration and urban mobility of migrant women: Pilot project findings based on knowledge and experience transfer
Melis Oğuz, Özlem Özçevik
Pages 291 - 305
This study tries to understand the difficulties migrant women are facing within the city of immigration and the physical barriers in front of their integration to the city. As important parameters to measure the level of integration to the city are public space use and urban mobility taken. The original is the integration of a model from Berlin to Istanbul to provide behavioral and perceptive changes in migrant women´s use and awareness of public spaces. This process has the quality of a pilot project, where social and economic integration to the city is ensured via increasing the urban mobility of migrant women.

The social exclusion of women is inherently not just because they are alien to the city and its social, economic system or its physical structuring; but it is more about they remain alien to the city and all the processes related to it. The field study is undertaken by mix-social research methodologies, which we choose to call as Participatory Action towards Experience Transfer (PATET). The analytical outcomes of this process, the path of solution offering, and policy suggestions are tried to be explained in this paper.

20.A study on determining the optimal energy retrofit strategies for an existing residential building in Turkey
Suzi Dilara Mangan, Gül Koçlar Oral
Pages 307 - 333
In today’s world, improving the energy efficiency level constitutes a focal point in Turkey’s energy policies, just as in other countries, in order to achieve a fast and cost effective solution to globalising energy and environmental problems and to create a sustainable, resource efficient economy which encompasses transformation and growth. In this context for Turkey, while the importance of studies on energy efficiency to ensure energy supply security is increasing, housing constructions which lead to a very high level of energy consumption are also growing. Therefore in this study strategies which are effective in improving energy performance of residential buildings with the goal of achieving optimum benefit for country resources and decision makers are developed for the different climate regions and the energy, economic and environmental performance of residential buildings related to these strategies are evaluated by means of the comparative approach. Thus, it is possible to obtain data from design and retrofit of buildings, which may provide a basis for relevant laws and regulations on optimising energy, economic and environmental performance of buildings and support for preparing technical information required to improve energy and cost efficiency levels of both existing and new residential buildings.

21.Building form effects on energy efficient heat pump application for different climatic zones
Banu Erdim, Gülten Manioğlu
Pages 335 - 349
Energy efficiency in built environment remains the most important sustainable building issue, not only because of its environmental impacts but also the probability of significantly higher future energy costs. Optimized passive design integrated renewable energy systems can greatly reduce the energy consumption in buildings. In this study; in order to provide energy conservation and climatic comfort in buildings, an approach which aims to control the energy consumption of heat pumps in different climatic zones by controlling decisions related to building design parameters has been developed. For this purpose, four different building forms, namely square, rectangular, L-shaped and H-shaped which have the same floor area, volume and optical and thermophysical properties of building envelope are examined in temperate, hot and cold zones of Turkey by using a building simulation program, e-QUEST. Annual total heating and cooling energy consumptions of vertical loop ground and air source heat pump systems are calculated for every building form in temperate-dry, hot and dry and cold climatic zones.

22.A computational model for mass customized housing design bu using cellular automata
Ahmet Emre Dinçer, Hakan Tong, Gülen Çağdaş
Pages 351 - 368
Depending on population growth in major cities, in our country, the importance of the concept of mass housing has been increasing. Also the studies for solution of the problem haven’t been both able to meet the needs of the users and to provide uniqueness, variety and flexibility in terms of the design. However, Cellular Automata (CA), one of rapidly evolving digital design approaches, has some potential (neighborhoods, simplicity-complexity, relations form-function and self-organizations etc.) for solution of this problem. In this study, with a protocol consisting of integration of Cellular Automata rules and the approach of “Reflection in Action”, a model taking care of user participation for mass customized housing is presented with a digital approach. In this model developed by scripts of 3DS Max software, design of the site plan, organization of floor plans according to the user preferences and facade design is included. Besides, neighborhoods of the housing blocks in a site plan, relations of spatial units with each other’s and cantilevers and setbacks in the facade design are organized by CA rules. This model proposal has been tested by using user scenarios in a site plan. Especially, the outcomes which offer rich alternatives for the floor plans and facade solutions of the generated blocks in a very short time have been obtained. Results of the study have been discussed from the point of view of innovative architecture.

23.A fuzzy AHP model for designing spatial relations in user perspective
Asena Kumsal Şen Bayram, Sinan Mert Şener
Pages 369 - 382
Todays ever-changing information and value systems, make custamization and user become more important day by day. These changes are in a direct relationship with design, therefore with architecture. Since user centred design is becoming more important in architecture, the traditional design processes become inefficient. This research aims to make a model that meets these new needs of users and architectural design.

The first part of the paper describes the methodological and theoretical base of the model. These foundations are drawn from the theory of Fuzzy AHP which is a method used by engineers mostly. This research will use this method to show if a parametric method that is used by engineers can be applied to a non parametric field like user centred architecture. The ability of this method, which is changing non-parametric values into parametric values, has vital importance to architecture, where qualitative values should be used with and quantative values. User needs will be turned into numeric values by help of this method during the research.

Hospitals are one of the most relevent places with user satisfaction. Today healing hospital concept become more and more important, so hospitals are good typologies to make this research over. Hospitals are the places where time, and distances have vital importance. Therefore considering way finding not only in paths but also in spatial connections become a major.



 
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