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ITU J Faculty Arch: 5 (1)
Volume: 5  Issue: 1 - June 2008
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EDITORIAL
1.Editorial
Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
Page II

THEORY ARTICLES
2.Examination of safe boundary distances; Dwelling cases from Istanbul
Nuri Serteser
Pages 1 - 11
Although many ways of spreading fire between existing buildings, radiation is one of the effective ways of it. In this study, safe boundary distances for preventing ignition by fire radiation between the buildings facing each other are examined as regards appropriateness of the distances by using some calculation methods still valid on this area. For the application of these methods two old and one modern building are chosen as cases. The importance of the boundary distance arises especially in the old and historical city parts because of the narrow streets, close distances between buildings and the use ignitable materials on facade and construction of such buildings. The modern building sample is chosen from Atasehir reflecting the contemporary and civil face of the city. Some calculations to obtain safe boundary distances are made on the case buildings chosen and the results of the applications in tabulated form are compared with each other. As a result the existent separation distances are not sufficient for fire protection against radiation for the old buildings whereas the modern building satisfies. Especially for the protection of the historical properties made of ignitable materials and placed each other very closely some fire protection measurements must been taken against fire radiation and the other ways of fire spread.

3.A shape grammar algorithm and educational software to analyze classic Ottoman mosques
Sinan Mert Şener, Emine Görgül
Pages 12 - 30
This work introduce, a shape grammar algorithm and custom-made software that has been accepted as a part of the fulfillment of master of architecture degree thesis in ITU, titled ‘A Shape Grammar Algorithm and Educational Software to analyze and understand the composition of Classic Ottoman Mosques’. This software, -a closed system shape grammar example- is distinguished with the possibility that it provides to run the shape grammar algorithm through a Delphi-based system. This study has been held to generate a model to establish a logical framework of an educational expert system, which can be a foundation for future programming exercises of artificial intelligence.

Mosques, which signify the power of the Ottoman Empire during its golden age, have been constructed using the latest technology of its time as well as high-aesthetics, which is still appreciated today. Fast forward to 20th century, especially after 1980’s increasing numbers of “new” mosques, attempting to emulate the qualities of mosques built during the Classical Period, fell short on achieving the authentic design principles, because of their disharmonious proportions and shapes. The mentioned software has been designed to guide and enlighten architects who are new to the profession as well as need information on this topic.

This software visualizes the principles on proportioning the mass of Classical Mosques in 3D, and explains the configuration rules of the components in typology. During the design stage, the software introduces all the components of the mosque as building blocks in a defined hierarchy. Therefore by using this software, users can start from the most essential component, the ‘dome’ and reach to a final product that is composed according to the basic design principles, and correctly configured components.

4.A critical look at the reuse options for a vernacular house in Alaçatı
Gamze Saygı, Mine Hamamcıoğlu Turan
Pages 31 - 53
This study focuses on vernacular houses in historic and touristic settlements. The aim is to define environmental and architectural factors that are to be considered in the development of reuse options for vernacular houses in such settlements. It is claimed that tourism should be accepted as a reality in the establishment of conservation – usage balance for the mentioned houses; however, the importance of keeping the local people in their historic environment is underlined. In addition to these environmental factors, architectural ones such as presentation of heritage values, rehabilitation of the building structure, determination of user preferences and development of strategies for the ownership problem should be taken into consideration. In this context, a series of methods are combined.

The literature on the usage problems especially in historic settlements attracted by tourists is reviewed, and criteria that guide the related architectural usages are defined. These are tested on a selected case study. Survey, historical research, comparative study and restitution results of the case study are presented. The role of tourism in the selected settlement, the presence of traditional qualities in the studied neighborhood, the types of heritage values and conservation problems, the preferences of the specific users in terms of architectural necessities, and the possible solutions for the ownership problem of the selected building are evaluated on the basis of preceding documentation. The evaluation results are used in the determination of usage options, building programs and related architectural designs. The design solutions are compared with one another in order to clarify the conclusive remarks.

The Sezgin House in Alaçatı, a historic settlement whose center is overwhelmed by tourism, is selected as the case study. The building is a 19th century house which originally belonged to a Greek family dealing with wine production. It is in a privileged location in the historic urban site of Alaçatı not only because it faces one of the few squares of the settlement, but also because it is located in a specific environment retaining the qualities that make it a neighborhood. The residential function continues in the building, but the vertical division made in order to attain two different living units is the major reason of a series of unqualified spatial alterations. Nevertheless, the structural condition of the building is relatively good. It has preserved the majority of its original architectural elements. The users are willing to continue their life in the building, although they have slightly different usage preferences. The options of reuse include insertion of a restaurant-cafe-bar incompatible with the mass tourism in the historic center, creation of a gathering space for tourists interested in the local culture of Alaçatı, establishment of a socio-cultural centre for the local women and children, continuity of the two living units at two different floor levels and regeneration of the living unit-wine production-commerce combination. The management of the ownership problem for each option is discussed.
In conclusion, the suitability of the socio-cultural centre for the neighborhood characteristics and the spatial qualities of the building is underlined. The creation of a gathering place for the tourists interested in Alaçatı culture is evaluated as a successful option because it balances the tourism potential with the conservation necessities of the neighborhood, and yet the design solution is compatible with the original spatial qualities. The living unit-wine production and commerce combination is also a positive option since it establishes a balance between tradition and tourism integrates the user preferences with the spatial qualities of the building and continues the present ownership status with minimal intervention. The preservation of heritage values, rehabilitation of the building structure, determination of user preferences and treatment of ownership problems specific to each case are prerequisite for the development of reuse strategies of vernacular houses in historic and touristic settlements. On the other hand, management of tourism and continuation of traditional life styles are environmental factors of the reuse design problem. Both architectural and environmental factors should be moulded together in order to develop case specific design solutions. In turn, reuse designs of vernacular houses in similar settlements can be guided.

5.Complexity versus sustainability in urban space: The case of Taksim Square, Istanbul
Ömer Erem, Elmira Gür Şener
Pages 54 - 73
This paper examines the relationship between complexities of urban space against the eco- aesthetic concept of visual sustainability of the environment. It highlights the conceptual challenges in defining urban and architectural sustainability; indicates relations between sustainability and legibility of space and researches negative effects of complexity on a sustainable urban development. The paper identifies two main complexity elements of a city, which are streets and squares and indicates three major subjects to be investigated as ‘general legibility easiness level’, ‘motor complexity elements’ and ‘general legibility difficulty level’ on streets or squares. The survey is carried out in one of the most important city centers of Istanbul: Taksim Square and Istiklal Street. Main findings of our paper are that people learn squares more easily than they do the streets, mobile elements such as vehicles and pedestrians
create more complexity than architectural diversity and signs. Complex defined to be less legible as the familiarity decreases.

6.Comparison between Turkish & Scandinavian housing and key strategies for eco-tech design
Özge Yalçıner Ercoşkun
Pages 74 - 96
This study aims to query the current trendy luxurious housing sites in Turkey from the point of ecologically sustainable principles and make comparative analysis between Turkish and Scandinavian ecological-technological (eco-tech) solutions in this manner. For this, the study investigated how eco-tech principles contribute to the urban design, for instance, features of sustainable community development such as sustainable transport, compact settlements, alternative energy, ecological protection, eco-technologies, local economy and 3 ‘R’ s policy etc. Afterwards, four projects from İstanbul and Ankara are evaluated according to the eco-tech principles and Scandinavian solutions are served as good examples, four different best practices from Finland and Sweden. As a result of site survey, spatial studies and interpretations, a comparison is made between case studies in this context. Considering that urban design is part of the planning process, the ecological sustainability principles should be considered together, key strategies and specific recommendations are put as techniques, in a dynamic interrelationship. These key strategies are developed under 4 headings: human ecology in a community and neighborhood scale, energy, land-resource and water conservation. Each strategy is defined separately seeking to embed design, policy making and implementation at sustainable housing development process.

7.The evaluation of urban quality and vitality of the Istanbul historical peninsula- Eminönü district
Gülden Demet Oruç, Cengiz Giritlioğlu
Pages 97 - 117
Historical urban centres are negatively affected and have lost their attractiveness and charm due to the changes of life styles and preferences within time. Recently, the importance of the central areas of urban settlements has been recognised, and the search for the components of a healthy city centre in order to recover such areas as vital parts of the city has become a priority. In this context, the concepts of vitality and viability have become the focus of the subject in relation with revitalization.

A two-staged research was conducted to determine the degree of urban vitality in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, which represents most of the transformations and problems. In order to examine the changes in urban vitality over time, the data gathered in 1985-1988 and 2002-2004 were evaluated by creating a specific benchmark index. By taking the general characteristics of Eminönü into consideration, the number of dwellings, population, business areas and the m2 unit prices of the land were used as urban vitality performance indicators. For a more sound explanation of the urban vitality change in selected neighbourhoods of Eminönü a public survey has been executed and evaluated by factor analysis.

According to the urban vitality assessment of Eminönü District, it has been seen that there is a value increase in Cankurtaran, Küçükayasofya, Mimar Hayrettin, Muhsine Hatun and Nişanca and a negative change on the other quarters. Depending on the findings of urban vitality assessment and survey results, necessary strategic approaches developed in addition to a model in relation with city centers revitalization process.



 
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