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ITU J Faculty Arch: 9 (2)
Volume: 9  Issue: 2 - December 2012
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EDITORIAL
1.Editorial
Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
Pages II - III

THEORY ARTICLES
2.The role of metaphors in the formation of architectural identity
Nezih Ayıran
Pages 1 - 21
As is the case in every other field of art, the purpose of architecture is to reveal a unique situation which has never been experienced before and broaden the feelings, thoughts and imagination of human beings. Considering that the concepts of identity and uniqueness are close enough to be used for the same meaning, the main purpose of architecture can be defined as designing a building which has a certain identity. Metaphors seem to be quite beneficial instruments compared to several other methods and approaches applied by architects in order to achieve this purpose. Design problems are defined as “wicked” problems which are too complex to be solved with completely linear, rational, logical methods and with a certain algorithm and require considering both objective and subjective aspects of the problem at the same time and with creativity. Metaphors, defined as “imaginative rationality” appear to be quite appropriate tools for solving such problems since they unite rationality and imagination.

This paper has two interconnected purposes. The primary purpose is to determine the effective role played by metaphors during the design processes of distinguished and referred buildings which have strong identities both in the past and in recent architecture. The secondary purpose is to indicate the capability of a design approach based on metaphors to meet the demand for architecture with identity and overcome the increasing monotonousness in the man-made environment.

3.The (in)corporeal architecture: Dematerialization and intangibility of space in early modern architecture, Barcelona Pavilion case
Emine Görgül
Pages 22 - 34
Being attributed as one of the most significant examples of Modern Architecture, Barcelona Pavilion emerged as a prototype in terms of immateriality and the virtual dimension of space, as well as a distinguished case that juxtaposes the discourse and praxis of its epoch, which still remains as an inspiring example in today’s debates. However, the pavilion was constructed in the glowing years of Modern Period, with its outstanding affiliation to International Style, this paper focuses on the pavilion as a milestone in which the intangible characteristics of the spatiality have influenced the constitution of architectural space.
While declining the closed-box ideology of the conventional spatiality
y, this paper aims to discuss the emergence of an architectural embodiment through corporeal and incorporeal becomings (the transitive existence of architectural space as well as the interaction of subjects). This paper also interacts with spatio-temporal multiplicities, and appraises their transforming capacities in space, that enable the proliferation of the spatial relations by constituting the multiple actualization processes of endless potentials of the virtual. Besides the processes of deterritorailization and reterritorialization appear within the procedure of territorial shifts in the transition of architectural becoming and the immaterialization of the embodiment.

Moreover, this paper also brings inside and outside relations into debate as well as notions of floating space and spatial continuity; visual continuity, reflection and surveillance, and furthermore the imperative affect of the image in spatial relations. In addition to all, this work is also keen at discussing these cited conceptions resonating with the concepts of contemporary theory, while speculating on the significant effect of the pavilion in contemporary architecture.

4.Unified Jerusalem? Architectural reflections on the political conflict in city
Yara Saifi
Pages 35 - 50
This paper aims to present on contemporary architectural reflections in Jerusalem, where architecture is a result of the accelerating conflict following the reunification of the city in 1967. Both the traditional and contemporary Arabic architecture and Israel’s baffled search for a national architecture demonstrate expressions of power around the environs of the old city and suspects a truthful unification. Four different architectural forms, which are seen as reflections of power are explored within this paper, which can be a tool to critique that accounts to the general architectural attempt in the city to relate to the conflict. With the assistance of Theodor W. Adorno, the cases are discussed, analyzed and interpreted under the concept of authenticity and identity thinking. The paper demonstrates that contemporary architecture in Jerusalem, per se, lacks authenticity and, in fact portrays rather political attitudes, which are based on national/state aims that negate the aesthetical/ethical considerations of the city. It also, demonstrates a tendency towards a bias, which tend to reflect power in respect of contemporary Arabic architecture.

5.Evaluation of destination image: Antalya – Belek Tourism Center
Ersin Acar İnam, Deniz Erinsel Önder
Pages 51 - 66
The aim of the study is to evaluate the destination image of Belek Tourism Center, which stands out as an important center for tourism activities in Turkey. In addition to the destination image of the area, the study reveals the comments of the local people on tourism development, the image data created in the facilities in the area by the designing architects and their contribution to the image of the area. The data in the study was collected through literature study, a questionnaire that was distributed to the volunteering local and foreign visitors and interviews made with the managers of the tourism facilities in the area. The study has tested the effect of natural environment data and socio-cultural structure of the area on the destination image and the hypotheses questioning the relationship between architectural formation of the facilities and the destination image.

According to the results of the study, the image of the area was shaped by the concepts of ‘sea- sand-sun-golf pitches’. The tourists are not acquainted with the local people, their life styles and customs. While the first time visitors to the area think that there are still natural attractions around, the ones who visited the area previously state that natural attractiveness has been lost. With respect to architectural formation of the facilities, the architect’s search for different images in accordance with his own point of view stands out.

6.Water crossing utopias of Istanbul: Past and future
Aslı Çekmiş, Işıl Hacıhasanoğlu
Pages 67 - 88
Throughout history transportation projects showing endeavour to give their users full access have been regarded as utopias. Among them those related with water – crossing the water or channel crossings – are the most splendid in terms of showing feats of engineering and architectural innovation.

Cities with a dynamic topography experience difficulties in transportation. Istanbul is one being built on two continents – a city with a strait and firth. As a consequence, crossing the water gains more importance in terms of sustainable urban transportation. This paper particularly focuses on the water crossing utopias of Istanbul by looking at the official projects beginning with the Ottoman period up until today. This study encompasses the bridges, tunnels and canal projects, excluding transportation by watercrafts. Proposals are listed under three main headings; 1. Crossing the Golden Horn, 2. Crossing the Bosphorus and 3. Supporting the waterway for the Bosphorus.

Bridges over the Golden Horn have changed throughout the years in line with developments in technology. Among them, the Galata Bridge has had a significant role in terms of connecting the royal and later historical peninsula to the rest of the city. Bridge and tunnel proposals for the Bosphorus during the Ottoman period were spectacular utopias, but were never realized. Today, two bridges connect Europe and Asia, whilst a third is currently the focus of much debate. The current tunnel project Marmaray, of which construction is almost finished, has been constructed along the same route as proposed a century ago. This railway tube tunnel and the proposed Golden Horn metro bridge are two fundamental parts of an uninterrupted rail system network in İstanbul. It is, only the canal projects that could not come to fruition, which are rather big-scale projects and prompt a greater urban transformation.

7.A review of the modernizing impacts of station approaches in the early Republican period
Sıdıka Çetin
Pages 89 - 106
During the early Republican era, the urban Master Plans implemented in many cities in Turkey, both large and small, played a significant role in the spread of modernization over a wider context. Implemented in the very first years of the Republic and published in such contemporary periodicals as Arkitekt, Municipalities, and Cities and Municipalities, these plans became a hotly debated issue in the world of architecture and the local press. The “modern city” proposed in the Master Plans was, in reality, the key component in the envisaged nation state; and one of the most significant elements of the modern city reflected on the plans was the station approach, which determined the directions of growth of cities at the time.

The intention in this article to investigate to what extent the attitude of the central administration towards the production and regeneration of space was reflected in its own ideology regarding station approaches, the impacts of which are clearly apparent in Anatolian cities. The nation’s station approaches are evaluated in terms of their influence on urban focus, and the representative qualities of the surrounding public buildings and residences, as well as the wide array of meanings best owed by those buildings and their interrelation with each other. In the early years of the Republic, approach roads to mainline railway stations, which determined the direction of growth of cities, reflected the secular and modern national identity in all its aspects, and thus had a symbolic meaning in this regard. Also underlined in this article are the reasons why station approaches may be considered as representative spaces in the Master Plans, the qualities of those streets in previous periods and how they became symbolic as a result of the interventions of the early Republican era.

8.Visual evaluation of the store environments: A comparative study on intercultural differences
Ervin Garip, Alper Ünlü
Pages 107 - 120
Today, the phenomenon of globalization plays an important role on the formation of interior spaces all over the world. Many designs ignore intercultural differences in general, pioneer the forming of similar interior designs in different places throughout the globe associated with globalization and standardization. Contemporary understanding of merchandising also displayed a similar tendency, similar physical environments manifested themselves. In the last two decades, researchers in “Environment and Behavior” field have increasingly shown an interest in the effects of the physical environment on shopping behavior. Besides, various studies on the store environments demonstrate that spatial organization and physical layout are important in the understanding of merchandising. The sudy presented in this paper aims to put forth the descriptive characteristics of different store layouts and tries to compare the visual preferences of the shoppers. 100 participants were selected from different countries that have different cultural characteristics; from NC State University (USA) and Istanbul Kultur University (Turkey). Additionally, in the scope of this study, it is suggested that different descriptive words can be used to categorize different store layouts. “Causal Comparative Case Study Methodology” was used in order to determine the similarities and differences in the evaluation of the participants and to compare the environmental characteristics of different layouts in the selected electronics stores. Photographs were used to simulate selected shopping environments, and nine descriptive adjectives were chosen to find out the perceptive characteristics of the settings. Data was collected through a questionnaire; statisticaly analysed by means of semantic differential scales and T tests. In contrast with the hypothesis that the intercultural differences should be effectiveon the evaluation of the store settings and the shopping behavior; the results showed clearly that both groups had similar visual preferences. Nevertheless, the participants gave different responses on choosing the settings as “like” or “dislike”.

9.Stone as a determinant of architectural identity in the Florence of Renaissance
Nilüfer Sağlar Onay, Massimo Ricci
Pages 121 - 134
The use of local materials together with the enlightenment of Renaissance reached to its peak in the Florence of the Early Renaissance. For Renaissance architects, the nature of material was the basic element that determined constructional principles and beauty was the result of the logical proportional relations and constructional principles that respected the nature of material.

The purpose of the paper is to analyze the strong relation between material and architecture through the examination of local stones and their particular uses in the Florence of Renaissance. The re-examination and re-evaluation of the use of local materials in Renaissance Architecture can make important contributions to contemporary architecture as the most important deficiency of today’s architecture can be regarded as the disengagement of architecture and material.

In this study three most common local stone types of Florence were examined starting from their quarries. The first one, “Pietraforte” with its strong nature, becomes an element that expresses vertical constructional strength and it characterizes the facades of the city. The second, “Pietra Serena” with its dark color and homogeneous texture becomes the material of framings in order to strengthen the affect of architectural form and order. And the third, “Pietra Bigia” characterizes the horizontal surfaces of the city and becomes typical of Florence squares and streets.

The study aims to underline that, architecture that does not respect local materials and techniques become a consumer good and lack identity. The buildings all over the world lose their context and tend to be similar. In order to evaluate today’s architecture it is essential to look back to Renaissance and analyze it profoundly.

10.Izmit Sultan Abdülaziz Imperial Hunting Lodge: Restoration following the 1999 earthquake
Yegan Kahya
Pages 135 - 151
Sultan Abdülaziz Imperial Hunting Lodge was built in the second half of 19th century during the construction of the Anatolian-Balkan Railway, which played an important role in the urban development of Izmit. This imperial lodge outside the capital city might have been constructed on the foundations of a former palace built during the reign of Murat IV. Due to its location above the Izmit Gulf, it has become one of the most important elements of the urbanscape. Witnessing important turning points in the history of the city, the lodge has been used as the centre of local government and then as a museum. It has been affected by a number of major earthquakes due to its location on the North Anatolian Fault, and following its latest restoration in 1998, it suffered great damage during the Kocaeli earthquake of August 17, 1999. The damage was further aggravated as the building had not been well maintained, had been the subject of inappropriate repair interventions and left exposed to the effects of climatic conditions.

The most important type of damage observed in the building was structural deformations of various types: the walls drifted outwards at the roof level while vertical detachments and cracks of various shapes and sizes were observed along the walls and the roof parapet walls were separated at the corners as a result of the earthquake. In order to decide on the type, method and techniques of intervention necessary, the architectural, structural and material characteristics of the building as well as the level of damage had to be studied and documented in detail. This data was then evaluated with the contribution of specialists in various fields and conservation, restoration and structural strengthening methodologies were developed. The intervention aimed at re-using the original building material detached during the earthquake while the basic principles were defined as an accurate analysis of the types of damage and the implementation of the solutions to these problems by the use of original materials and construction techniques through minimal intervention.



 
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